Curriculum practitioners and implementers may use one or more approaches in planning, implementing and evaluating the curriculum. Even textbook writers or instructional material producers have different curricular approaches.
The following are the five curriculum approaches:
1. Behavioral Approach. This is based on a blueprint, where goals and objectives are specified, contents and activities are also arranged to match with the learning objectives. The learning outcomes are evaluated in terms of goals and objectives set at the beginning. This approach started with the idea of Frederick Taylor which is aimed to achieve efficiency. In education, behavioral approach begins with educational plans that start with the setting of goals or objectives. These are the important ingredients in curriculum implementation as evaluating the learning outcomes as a change of behavior. The change of behavior indicates the measure of the accomplishment.
2. Managerial Approach. In this approach, the principal is the curriculum leader and at the same time instructional leader who is supposed to be the general manager. The general manager sets the policies and priorities, establishes the direction of change and innovation, and planning and organizing curriculum and instruction. School administrators are less concerned about the content than about organization and implementation. They are less concerned about subject matter, methods and materials than improving the curriculum. Curriculum managers look at curriculum changes and innovations as they administer the resources and restructure the schools.
Some of the roles of the Curriculum Supervisors are the following:
a. help develop the school's education goals
b. plan curriculum with students, parents, teachers and other stakeholders
c. design programs of study by grade levels
d. plan or schedule classes or school calendar
e. prepare curriculum guides or teacher guides by grade level or subject area
f. help in the evaluation and selection of textbooks
g. observe teachers
h. assist teachers in the implementation of the curriculum
i. encourage curriculum innovation and change
j. develop standards for curriculum and instructional evaluation
3. Systems Approach. This was influenced by systems theory, where the parts of the total school district or school are examined in terms of how they relate to each other. The organizational chart of the school represents a systems approach. It shows the line-staff relationships of personnel and how decisions are made. The following are of equal importance: a) administration b) counseling c) curriculum d) instruction e) evaluation.
4. Humanistic Approach. This approach is rooted in the progressive philosophy and child-centered movement. It considers the formal or planned curriculum and the informal or hidden curriculum. It considers the whole child and believes that in curriculum the total development of the individual is the prime consideration. The learner s at the center of the curriculum.
(Question: Does a principal with humanistic approach to curriculum emphasize most memorization of subject matter? Does the systems approach to curriculum consider only each part?)
Source: Curriculum Development by Purita P. Bilbao, et. al. LoreMar Pub., 2008